The Dedication of the Temple (1 Kings 8:1-21; 2 Chronicles 5:2-6:11) December 31
Of all the days that ever passed upon the earth, surely the day that Solomon dedicated the temple must rank as one of the most awesome. The temple was a magnificent creation, with stunning gold, silver, bronze, jewels, marble, engraving and woodwork adorning its every feature. To be in its courts must have been a breathtaking experience!
The dedication of this extraordinary edificeevery aspect of which was masterfully designed to express and extol the magnificence of the One who dwelt withinwas an occasion that called for the greatest pomp and ceremony. To the dedication Solomon invited Israel's most important dignitaries. Two groups are specifically mentioned in 1 Kings 8:1the "elders of Israel" and "the heads of the tribes, the chiefs of the fathers of the children of Israel." Some have concluded that these two groups are distinctrepresenting the government of Israel in its national and tribal components. Those with this view see the "elders of Israel" as the members of the governing body in Israel's national government, functioning, it is surmised, somewhat like a House of Lords or Senate. According to the same view, the "heads of the tribes, the chiefs of the fathers of the children of Israel," apparently one from each tribe, are seen as the senior members of the individual tribal governments. We know for sure that Israel's government was not an absolute monarchy. It was "constitutional"that is, rather than the king's word being the highest law of the land, his own powers derived from the written law of Moses as given by God, to which he was himself answerable. It also appears that Israel's government may have been a federal monarchythe word "federal" describing a system wherein separate states are united under one central authority while retaining certain regulatory powers.
The dedication of the temple occurred in the Feast of the seventh month (1 Kings 8:2, 2 Chronicles 5:3). This may seem somewhat odd, as the temple construction ceased in the eighth month (1 Kings 6:38). This means that the temple stood unoccupied for nearly a year before it was dedicated. Why did Solomon choose to wait 11 months before dedicating this magnificent edifice? It may be that all of the temple furnishings were not yet complete. Of course, it may also be that everything was complete and that Solomon simply waited intentionally. The Bible doesn't spell out the reason for the delay.
Whatever the case, it is interesting that the dedication took place in the feast of the seventh month. But just which feast was thisthe Feast of Trumpets, the Day of Atonement, the Feast of Tabernacles or the Eighth Day (now known to us as the Last Great Day)all of which fall during that same month? (See Leviticus 23.) It should be noted that only one of God's annual festivals is elsewhere actually called simply the "Feast of the Lord"i.e., the Feast of Tabernacles (see Leviticus 23:39). A seven-day festival, it was clearly the major feast of the seventh month. Yet 1 King 8:65-66 records that the dedication of the temple was 14 days. Strangely, however, it says that the people were sent away on the eighth day. As it makes no sense for this to mean the eighth day out of 14, these verses must mean that the 14th day of the dedication feast was the Eighth Daythat is, Tishri 22 on the Hebrew Calendar or what we now often refer to as the Last Great Dayand that the people were dismissed at the end of that day. In fact, 2 Chronicles 7:9-10 states that the people observed the dedication of the altar for seven days and the feast for seven days, finally being sent away on the 23rd day of the seventh month, which must mean the very beginning of that day at sunset (which would also be the end of the 22nd, i.e., the end of the Eighth Day). Thus, the feast of the dedication clearly began prior to the Feast of Tabernacleswith the entire period apparently being looked upon as one expanded Feast of Tabernacles.
The Feast of Tabernacles pictures the Kingdom of God and is, therefore, eminently the Kingdom Feast, looking to the future enthronement of the divine King, Jesus Christ, and the inauguration of the government of God on Earth. Thus, the enthronement symbolism is fitting for the enthronement of God in His temple.
In a stupendous display, "the glory of the Lord"an awesome glowing cloud"filled the house of the Lord" (1 Kings 8:11). "As a cloud had covered the tabernacle and God's glory had filled it when it was inaugurated (Exodus 40:34), so now a cloud filled the temple. This visible presence of God's dwelling with His peoplesometimes called the 'shekinah [indwelling] glory'gave the people assurance and incentive for obedient and holy living" (Nelson Study Bible, note on 1 Kings 8:10-11).
As for Solomon's speech, given before he passionately prays that God will always hear and respond to the prayers of His people, he recounts the promise God made to David in 2 Samuel 7, where God foretold an enduring dynasty descended from David. Solomon specifically identifies himself as the son who, as God promised, would build the temple. This speech, divinely sanctioned and preserved for all time by God in Scripture, verifies that the promise made to David in 2 Samuel 7 refers to Solomon, the immediate son of David. It invalidates attempts to "spiritualize" the promises of 2 Samuel 7 regarding David's housethat is, mistakenly claiming they are fulfilled in Jesus Christ. Although Jesus is building God's Church, God's spiritual temple, nevertheless the promise made by God to David through the prophet Nathan referred to a literal and immediate son of Davidand that David's dynasty would continue forever from that time. While there is likely duality in 2 Samuel 7, the primary and intended meaning of the promise to David concerns a successor son and a literal physical templeand a literal dynasty beginning at that time that would never end.